It is a gradual process that affects the spine caused by normal wear and tear of the aging process. Inter-vertebral disc loses its sponginess and the shock absorbing abilities, also starts to form bone spurs. As this process evolves, the facet joints become stiff and limit the movement. Pain usually occurs in the region where degeneration occurs. The symptoms include the chronic lower back pain or pain in the buttocks and thighs while walking.
It occurs when the central portion of the disc bulges through the outer layer of the disc, known as annulus. It puts pressure on the spinal nerves and can occur at any part of the spine including the cervical and lumber regions.
Spinal canal stenosis is a common problem. It is the narrowing of the spinal canal due to disc bule or bone or ligament hypertrophy.. The normal spinal canal is about 10-15mm and oval in shape but it becomes slit like in this disease. This puts pressure on the spinal nerves leading to pain.
In this, one bone in your back slides forward over the bone below it. It often occurs at the lower spine.
Spondylolisthesis can cause the back pain and numbness or weakness in one or both legs. It mostly affects the older adults due to the wear and tear on the back that leads to fractures. It may also occur due to weak bone simce birth which manifest as listhesis in early adulthood. The symptoms includes the back or buttock pain, pain that runs from the lower back down one or both legs, numbness or weakness, and difficulty in walking.
Conservative treatment may include physiotherapy, chiropractic manipulation, medication, acupuncture, massage therapy and spinal injections. However, surgery and fixation of spine is the best modality of treatment in this case.